Plasmodium Vivax College Project

Plasmodium Vivax College Project Free PDF Download


Download your free Plasmodium vivax college project PDF here. We provide comprehensive research on the biology, structure, and lifecycle of Plasmodium vivax. Get the information you need to write a top-notch project

This Project prepare by a student: may be Some mistake in this project. we post this project without verify.

The Malarial parasite

  • The most interesting sporozoan genus is plasmodium
  • Because of their malaria causing abilities, these species commonly referred as malarial parasites
  • All resides in the RBC
  • Mosquitoes are the vectors
  • 4 species are known to cause different types of malaria
  • P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and P. falciparium
  • Geographically distributed in tropical and temperate countries
  • P. vivax is most commonly distributed and prevails in the temperate regions of the world.

Life Cycle of P. vivax

  • P. Vivax is the most common of the human infecting malaria fever parasites.
  • Causes benign tertian or vivax malaria, characterized by a 48 h cycle b/w first fever and subsequent chills and fever.
  • Hosts: diagenetic

a. Man:

asexual cycle in two phases

First in liver- liver schizogony

Second in RBC – erythrocytic schizogony and forms gametes

b. Mosquito:

Sexual cycle is completed in female anopheles

It involves gametogony and sporogony

Asexual cycle of P. vivax in man

[1]. Infection

  • Anopheles bite resulting in the inoculation of thousands of sporozoites along with saliva into the persons body (victim)

[2]. Sporozoites

  • Infective form of parasite
  • Small, spindle shaped measuring about 11-12 µ in length and 0.5-1  µ in width

[3]. Liver Schizogony

  • After 30m of infection, sporozoites invades hepatic tissues and multiply by schizogony in two phases (pre and exo-erythrocytic)

a). Pre-erythrocytic phase

  • Sporozoite becomes cryptozoite in hepatic cells and becomes spherical and non-pigmented schizont.
  • Undergo multiple fission (schizogony) and forms numeros uninucleate At the end of phase, hepatic cell bursts and cryptomerozoites are

b). Exo-erythrocytic phase

  • Cryptomerozoites enter new liver cells and becomes metacryptozoites
  • Undergo similar schizogony and produces metacryptomerozoites.
  • At the end of phase, hepatic cell bursts and cryptomerozoites are liberated
[4]. Erythrocytic schizogony

  • Micro metacryptomerozoites invades RBC and starts erythrocytic schizogony and includes following stages:

a). Tropozoite stage

  • Inside RBC, micro metacryptomerozoites becomes rounded and modified into trophozoite.

b). Signet ring stage

  • Trophozoite grows, develops vacuole and clinically referred as  signet ring stage.

c). Amoeboid stage

  • Meanwhile signet stage develops into active amoeboid trophozoite
  • At this stage, samle red eosinophilic granules appear in the cytoplasm-schuffners granules

d). Schizont

  • Amoeboid trophozoite after feeding becomes rounded, grows in size and becomes schizont
  • It undergoes schizogony and forms merozoites
  • One erythrocytic cycle takes 48h

[5]. Post-erythrocytic schizogony

• Sometimes merozoites reach the liver and undergoes schizogonic development in the liver cells -post-erythrocytic schizogony.

[6]. Formation of gametes

  • Merozoites increases in size to become rounded gametocytes.
  • Male – microgametocyte and female- magagametocyte
  • Gametocytes donot devide but remain as intracellular parasite until they either die or ingested by vector

Sexual cycle of P. vivax in man

[1]Ingestion by mosquito

  • Female anopheles gets the infection by sucking the blood of infected person
  • RBC are digested and gametocytes are liberated and lodged into the cavity of the gut.

[2]. Gametogony

  • Development of gametes (Haploids) from gametocyte-gametogony/ gametogenesis.
  • Gamtes are of two types

a). Microgametes

  • Male or microgamete undergoes exflagellation in the midgut of mosquito
  • Each nucleus divides by mitosis and produce 6-8 haploid daughter and assemble at periphery
  • Cytoplasm outgrows into long thin flagella like projection and later these projections break away as mature male gamete

b). Megagametes

  • Female megagametocyte undergo some reorganisationa nd becomes a female gamete, which is ready for fertilization.

[3]. Fertilization

  • Megagamete gives out a cytoplasmic projection-fertilization cone.
  • Microgamete attached to this cone and transfer its nucleus to megagamete
  • Fertilization or syngamy takes place forms
  • Diploid zygote

[4]. Ookinete

  • After sometime zygote becomes active and shows gliding k/as ookinete moment and is
  • It measures about 15-22 micron in length and 3 micron in width.
  • It attaches itself to peritrophic membrane of gut.

[5]. Encystment

  • Ookinete penetrates through walls of midgut, becomes spherical and begins enyst.
  • The encysted zygote – oocyst / sporont

[6]. Sporogony

  • Oocyst enters into a phase of asexual multiplication- sporogony
  • Firstly divides by meosis and then by mitosis and forms enormous haploid nuclei surrounded by cytoplasmic masses
  • The daughter nuclei arrange themselves along the margin of cytoplasmic masses and later forms slender finger like processes having single nuclei in each
  • In this way about 10,000 minute slender and sickle bodies are formed-sporozoites.
  • When sporozoite matures oocyst ruptures and liberated into haeomocoel later penetrates into salivary glands
  • Whole sexual cycle completes into 0-12 days
  • Now mosquito becomes infective

Pathogenesis of malarial parasite

Symptoms of malaria first appear several dais after the infection of the parasite.

This time — incubation period Each attack of fever shows three stages:

1. Cold Stage

  • At the onset of malaria patent suffers from severe shaking chill.
  • Cold stage lasts for 20 min

2. Hot stage

  • As the chill subsides, the body temp rises as high as 106°F. and lasts for 1-4 h.

3. Sweating stage

  • As the temp lowers down, patent sweats profusely.
  • Fever comes down and temperature becomes normal
  • Malaria fever occurs when schizont in RBC bursts and set free their merozoites and malarial pigment haemozoin in the plasma.

Anemia is inevitable due to:

  • Destruction of RBC
  • Infected RBC become more fragile and rupture easily
  • Parasite produce haemolysin- brings haemolysis 
  • In chronic case- spleen becomes enlarged

Control of Malaria

Control Measures falls into three categories:

  1. Elimination or destruction of vector
  2. Prophylaxis (prevention of infection)
  3. Treatment of infected patents

[A] Destruction of anopheles

Most effective and surest way of controlling malaria and can be done through

  • Destruction of adult mosquitoes: method used are killing of hands, traps, fumigation, spraying and sterilization.
  • Elimination of breeding places: swampy, marshy and water logging areas are cleared out, bushes and shrubs are cleared off etc.
  • Destruction of larvae and pupae of mosquito through proper drainage (Flowing water), oil screens, chemical larvicides and biological methods.

[B]. Prevention of infection

  • Through the use of insect repellent, nets, gloves and by screening bedroom windows.

[C]. Treatment

  • Chlorquine and quinine: anti-erythrocytic stage drugs.
  • Primaquine and pyrimethamine: anti-exoerythrocytic stage drugs

Plasmodium Vivax College Project Free PDF

Odia Application to BDOClick Here
Sarojini Naidu in Odia 1200 Word Free PDFClick Here

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!