Plasmodium Vivax College Project

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Download your free Plasmodium vivax college project PDF here. We provide comprehensive research on the biology, structure, and lifecycle of Plasmodium vivax. Get the information you need to write a top-notch project

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The Malarial parasite

  • The most interesting sporozoan genus is plasmodium
  • Because of their malaria causing abilities, these species commonly referred as malarial parasites
  • All resides in the RBC
  • Mosquitoes are the vectors
  • 4 species are known to cause different types of malaria
  • P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and P. falciparium
  • Geographically distributed in tropical and temperate countries
  • P. vivax is most commonly distributed and prevails in the temperate regions of the world.

Life Cycle of P. vivax

  • P. Vivax is the most common of the human infecting malaria fever parasites.
  • Causes benign tertian or vivax malaria, characterized by a 48 h cycle b/w first fever and subsequent chills and fever.
  • Hosts: diagenetic

a. Man:

asexual cycle in two phases

First in liver- liver schizogony

Second in RBC – erythrocytic schizogony and forms gametes

b. Mosquito:

Sexual cycle is completed in female anopheles

It involves gametogony and sporogony

Asexual cycle of P. vivax in man

[1]. Infection

  • Anopheles bite resulting in the inoculation of thousands of sporozoites along with saliva into the persons body (victim)

[2]. Sporozoites

  • Infective form of parasite
  • Small, spindle shaped measuring about 11-12 µ in length and 0.5-1  µ in width

[3]. Liver Schizogony

  • After 30m of infection, sporozoites invades hepatic tissues and multiply by schizogony in two phases (pre and exo-erythrocytic)

a). Pre-erythrocytic phase

  • Sporozoite becomes cryptozoite in hepatic cells and becomes spherical and non-pigmented schizont.
  • Undergo multiple fission (schizogony) and forms numeros uninucleate At the end of phase, hepatic cell bursts and cryptomerozoites are

b). Exo-erythrocytic phase

  • Cryptomerozoites enter new liver cells and becomes metacryptozoites
  • Undergo similar schizogony and produces metacryptomerozoites.
  • At the end of phase, hepatic cell bursts and cryptomerozoites are liberated

[4]. Erythrocytic schizogony

  • Micro metacryptomerozoites invades RBC and starts erythrocytic schizogony and includes following stages:

a). Tropozoite stage

  • Inside RBC, micro metacryptomerozoites becomes rounded and modified into trophozoite.

b). Signet ring stage

  • Trophozoite grows, develops vacuole and clinically referred as  signet ring stage.

c). Amoeboid stage

  • Meanwhile signet stage develops into active amoeboid trophozoite
  • At this stage, samle red eosinophilic granules appear in the cytoplasm-schuffners granules

d). Schizont

  • Amoeboid trophozoite after feeding becomes rounded, grows in size and becomes schizont
  • It undergoes schizogony and forms merozoites
  • One erythrocytic cycle takes 48h

[5]. Post-erythrocytic schizogony

• Sometimes merozoites reach the liver and undergoes schizogonic development in the liver cells -post-erythrocytic schizogony.

[6]. Formation of gametes

  • Merozoites increases in size to become rounded gametocytes.
  • Male – microgametocyte and female- magagametocyte
  • Gametocytes donot devide but remain as intracellular parasite until they either die or ingested by vector

Sexual cycle of P. vivax in man

[1]Ingestion by mosquito

  • Female anopheles gets the infection by sucking the blood of infected person
  • RBC are digested and gametocytes are liberated and lodged into the cavity of the gut.

[2]. Gametogony

  • Development of gametes (Haploids) from gametocyte-gametogony/ gametogenesis.
  • Gamtes are of two types

a). Microgametes

  • Male or microgamete undergoes exflagellation in the midgut of mosquito
  • Each nucleus divides by mitosis and produce 6-8 haploid daughter and assemble at periphery
  • Cytoplasm outgrows into long thin flagella like projection and later these projections break away as mature male gamete

b). Megagametes

  • Female megagametocyte undergo some reorganisationa nd becomes a female gamete, which is ready for fertilization.

[3]. Fertilization

  • Megagamete gives out a cytoplasmic projection-fertilization cone.
  • Microgamete attached to this cone and transfer its nucleus to megagamete
  • Fertilization or syngamy takes place forms
  • Diploid zygote

[4]. Ookinete

  • After sometime zygote becomes active and shows gliding k/as ookinete moment and is
  • It measures about 15-22 micron in length and 3 micron in width.
  • It attaches itself to peritrophic membrane of gut.

[5]. Encystment

  • Ookinete penetrates through walls of midgut, becomes spherical and begins enyst.
  • The encysted zygote – oocyst / sporont

[6]. Sporogony

  • Oocyst enters into a phase of asexual multiplication- sporogony
  • Firstly divides by meosis and then by mitosis and forms enormous haploid nuclei surrounded by cytoplasmic masses
  • The daughter nuclei arrange themselves along the margin of cytoplasmic masses and later forms slender finger like processes having single nuclei in each
  • In this way about 10,000 minute slender and sickle bodies are formed-sporozoites.
  • When sporozoite matures oocyst ruptures and liberated into haeomocoel later penetrates into salivary glands
  • Whole sexual cycle completes into 0-12 days
  • Now mosquito becomes infective

Pathogenesis of malarial parasite

Symptoms of malaria first appear several dais after the infection of the parasite.

This time — incubation period Each attack of fever shows three stages:

1. Cold Stage

  • At the onset of malaria patent suffers from severe shaking chill.
  • Cold stage lasts for 20 min

2. Hot stage

  • As the chill subsides, the body temp rises as high as 106°F. and lasts for 1-4 h.

3. Sweating stage

  • As the temp lowers down, patent sweats profusely.
  • Fever comes down and temperature becomes normal
  • Malaria fever occurs when schizont in RBC bursts and set free their merozoites and malarial pigment haemozoin in the plasma.

Anemia is inevitable due to:

  • Destruction of RBC
  • Infected RBC become more fragile and rupture easily
  • Parasite produce haemolysin- brings haemolysis 
  • In chronic case- spleen becomes enlarged

Control of Malaria

Control Measures falls into three categories:

  1. Elimination or destruction of vector
  2. Prophylaxis (prevention of infection)
  3. Treatment of infected patents

[A] Destruction of anopheles

Most effective and surest way of controlling malaria and can be done through

  • Destruction of adult mosquitoes: method used are killing of hands, traps, fumigation, spraying and sterilization.
  • Elimination of breeding places: swampy, marshy and water logging areas are cleared out, bushes and shrubs are cleared off etc.
  • Destruction of larvae and pupae of mosquito through proper drainage (Flowing water), oil screens, chemical larvicides and biological methods.

[B]. Prevention of infection

  • Through the use of insect repellent, nets, gloves and by screening bedroom windows.

[C]. Treatment

  • Chlorquine and quinine: anti-erythrocytic stage drugs.
  • Primaquine and pyrimethamine: anti-exoerythrocytic stage drugs

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